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1) The interface peth0.2999 is the physical eth0 using VLAN2999 vl2999 tagging.
2) The bridge xenbrVLAN2999 is attaching vif4.0 with peth0.2999 which means that any traffic coming into interface vif4.0 is leaving out the physical interface tagged on VL2999vl2999, and conversely any traffic coming into the physical interface with VLAN2999 vl2999 tagging will be sent to vif4.0.
3) Xen then presents vif4.0 to the instance as eth0.
4) The result is that the instance ethernet interface is successfully confined to VLAN2999.

If the customer created an interface eth0.2000 in attempt to sneak into our management VLAN, they would be sending tagged frames to vif4.0, which would then be sent to the switch with VLAN2999 vl2999 tagging.  The Ethernet switch would only see the VLAN2999 vl2999 tag and place that traffic into VL2999VLAN2999, and the vl2000 tag would have no impact.